1,2 It attracts worldwide attention to its epidemiology, risk factors, treatment plans and preventive
actions.3 Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has become a standard method to evaluate CKD based on diagnostic criteria and classification by the National Kidney Foundation, USA.4 However, the reported prevalence of CKD has varied among different countries because of the discrepancies in age, ethnic groups, survey policies and equations of eGFR calculation.5–10 The patterns of associated risk factors and targeting strategies are also quite diverse. Taiwan has the highest incidence and prevalence rates of ESRD in the world according to the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Data Report.11 Thus, it is worthwhile to make explicit the epidemiology, risk factors, impact and preventive strategies for CKD in Taiwan. We hope that this approach may provide valuable lessons and experiences to many countries that are selleck products suffering from serious CKD problems and are making efforts to tackle them. In this review, we aim to address the following key issues of CKD focusing on Taiwan: epidemiological
data, underlying diseases patterns, risk factors, public health concerns and a preventive project. A nationwide, randomized, stratified survey for hypertension, hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia (TW3H) by Hsu et al. reported a prevalence rate of 6.9% of CKD stage 3–5 in the subjects over 20 years-old (n = 6001).8 The second wave follow-up study of TW3H Survey revealed 9.8% of
CKD stage 1–5 (n = 5943) Selleck Palbociclib adjusted by age of the population in 2007 (unpubl. data, 2009). Another survey from the dataset of National Health Insurance (NHI) using disease code analysis by Kou et al. reported the prevalence of clinically recognized CKD as 9.83% and the overall incidence rate during 1997–2003 as 1.35/100 person-years.12 A large database of 13-year cohort commercial health examination by Wen et al.13 later reported an overall prevalence of 11.9% of CKD stage 1–5 (n = 462 293). The prevalence of each stage of CKD (I–V) was 1.0% (I), 3.8% (II), 6.8% (III), 0.2% (IV) and 0.1% (V). Despite the differences in data sources, study subjects and definition of CKD, the ADAMTS5 prevalence of CKD (9.8–11.9%) in Taiwan was slightly lower than 13.1% in United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1999–2004).6 The underestimated prevalence of CKD in Taiwan might be explained by variation in sampling methods and eGFR calculation system. Further worldwide epidemiological comparison on the prevalence of CKD is listed in Table 1. In Europe, the population-based Health Survey of Nord-Trondelag County (HUNT II), using the same methods as NHANES, reported a 10.2% prevalence of CKD in Norway.7 In the Asia–Pacific area, based on different published reports, the prevalence of CKD stage 3–5 or total CKD was approximately 12.9–15.1% in Japan, 3.2–11.3% in China, 7.2–13.7% in Korea, 8.45–16.3% in Thailand, 3.2–18.6% in Singapore, 4.