donovani and L. mexicana (MHOM/GT/2001/U1103). Within the African trypanosomes, sequencing of the T. brucei gambiense (strain DAL 972) genome and comparison to T. brucei brucei (strain 927) have provided
the first estimate of intraspecific genomic variation within T. brucei (24).This work revealed highly conserved gene organization and 99.2% sequence identity within coding regions including the VSG repertoire. While no T. brucei gambiense-specific gene could be identified that could explain human infectivity, this property might reside within the expansions of uncharacterized gene families or differential gene expression. Ongoing African trypanosome sequencing at WTSI includes T. vivax (strain Y486) and T. congolense (strain IL3000). Preliminary assemblies and annotations can be viewed and downloaded from GeneDB (25). Two institutes within the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Allergy
and Infectious see more Diseases (NIAID) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)) have recently initiated a collaboration aimed at coordinating a sequencing effort to provide publicly available genomic data for the most significant eukaryotic pathogens and disease vectors. A target selection process (http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/LabsAndResources/resources/gsc/pathogen/selection.htm) was put in place and a world community of several hundred investigators was queried as to the value of sequencing additional isolates from the three main groups of trypanosomatid pathogens and for advice as to which isolates are Ku-0059436 manufacturer the best candidates for future sequencing. The consensus led to the identification Casein kinase 1 of multiple isolates/strains
of T. cruzi ranked by priority and published online (26) at http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/DER/PathogensandVectors/PathogensofTrypanosomatid.pdf. While the list of strains to be sequenced is a dynamic one, they were strategically selected according to two main principles: coverage of the major subgroups within trypanosomatid genera and coverage of closely related strains/isolates with clearly different pathogenesis. With Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms driving sequencing costs down at a very rapid rate, we can expect sequencing centers and individual research laboratories to begin generating massive comparative sequencing data in the very near future. Among the most outstanding questions in the pathogenesis of trypanosomatids that will be investigated is the association of genotypes with the ability of different strains or isolates to cause widely varied clinical manifestations. Chagas disease, for example, presents a wide variety of clinical outcomes, including chronic chagasic heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), the ‘mega’ syndromes (involving the enlargement of the oesophagus (megaoesophagus) and the colon (megacolon)), or even totally asymptomatic carriers, and many patients do not manifest disease until years after the infection (27).