18 Among 1702 subjects, cognitive performance was inversely correlated with initial systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings: the higher the blood pressure, the lower the cognitive performance. In the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study, in which 3735 Japanese-American male subjects living in Hawaii were enrolled, elevated systolic blood pressure in midlife predieted future reduced cognitive function. A 10-mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure was associated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with a significantly increased risk of both intermediate and poor cognitive function. This relationship remained
after adjustment for stroke, coronary heart disease, and subclinical atherosclerosis.19 Our group conducted a longitudinal study in 1373 older adults (aged 59 to 71 years), the EVA study, to examine whether baseline hypertension and use of antihypertensive
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical medication predicted cognitive decline at a 4-year follow-up assessment.20 We found a relationship between cognitive decline and a history of hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥95 mm Hg), and we also discovered that the risk was the highest in patients with untreated hypertension. Hypertensive subjects Afatinib purchase receiving adequate treatment had no increased risk of cognitive decline compared with normotensive subjects.20 In another prospective, longitudinal, population-based study, it was also found that among Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2068 elderly individuals, subjects aged 65 years or older were more likely to make errors on a mental status questionnaire when their systolic blood pressure taken 9 years earlier was at least 160 mm Hg.21 Other studies have not
found any association between high blood pressure and cognitive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical function.22-26 This inconsistency has been attributed to the selection of populations investigated, differences between the methods used to assess cognitive function, and perhaps a misunderstanding of the synchronicity in the development of hypertension and cognitive impairment. However, a majority Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have found a deleterious effect of high blood pressure on cognition.27,28 With regard to dementia, several studies have reported a similar association between high blood pressure crotamiton and the risk of dementia. In a longitudinal study in Sweden, a significant link was found between the presence of high systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the development of dementia 10 to 15 years later.29 Similar findings were reported in other studies, such as the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study,30 a Finnish study with a 21-year long follow-up,28 and the Kaiser Permanente study.31 In comparison with the study of simple cognitive decline, there is a greater number of studies that show no association between dementia and high blood pressure, and some even suggest that dementia is associated with low blood pressure.