“Background: To explore whether combining inhibitors that

“Background: To explore whether combining inhibitors that target the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR)/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway (vertical blockade) selleck screening library can improve treatment efficacy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: HCC cell lines (including Hep3B, Huh7, and PLC5) and HUVECs (human umbilical venous endothelial cells) were tested. The molecular targeting therapy agents tested included NVP-AEW541 (IGFR kinase inhibitor), MK2206 (Akt inhibitor), BEZ235 (PI3K/mTOR inhibitor), and RAD001 (mTOR inhibitor). Potential synergistic antitumor effects were tested by median dose-effect analysis in vitro and by xenograft HCC models. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (sub-G1

fraction analysis) and Western blotting. The activities of pertinent signaling pathways and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured by Western blotting. Results: Vertical blockade induced a more sustained inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling activities in all MCC950 datasheet the HCC cells and HUVEC tested. Synergistic apoptosis-inducing effects, however, varied among different cell lines and drug combinations and were most prominent when NVP-AEW541 was combined with

MK2206. Using an apoptosis array, we identified survivin as a potential downstream mediator. Over-expression of survivin in HCC cells abolished the anti-tumor synergy between NVP-AEW541 and MK2206, whereas knockdown of survivin improved the anti-tumor effects of all drug combinations tested. In vivo by xenograft studies confirmed the anti-tumor synergy between NVP-AEW541 and MK2206 buy PFTα and exhibited acceptable toxicity profiles. Conclusions: Vertical blockade of the IGFR/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has promising anti-tumor activity for HCC. Survivin expression may serve as a biomarker to predict treatment efficacy.”
“Objective. Mast cells are tissue-resident immune sentinels that are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory joint disease. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that complement fragments could be key activators of synovial mast cells in autoimmune arthritis.\n\nMethods. In vivo studies used the murine K/BxN arthritis model, a distal symmetric polyarthritis

mediated by IgG immune complexes. Expression of C5aR on synovial mast cells was determined by immunohistochemical and functional studies. C5aR(-/-) and control mast cells were engrafted into mast cell-deficient WBB6 F1-Kit(w)/Kit(W-v) (W/Wv) mice to examine the requirement for this receptor in arthritis. C5aR-dependent activation of mast cells was investigated in C5aR(-/-) animals and in murine and human mast cell cultures.\n\nResults. Murine synovial mast cells express functional C5aR. Unlike their wild-type counterparts, C5aR(-/-) mast cells adoptively transferred into W/Wv mice were not competent to restore arthritis, despite equivalent synovial engraftment. Activation of C5aR(-/-) mast cells by K/BxN serum in vivo remained intact, indicating that C5aR is dispensable for normal IgG-mediated triggering.

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