Transferred donor leukocytes mainly migrated to the homologous vaccine injection site rather than to injection sites of heterologous vaccines, suggesting the antigen specificity of homing. By demonstrating CMC responses to distinct viral proteins and homing in rainbow trout, these results substantially contribute to the understanding of the teleost immune system. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Scar inhibition of dermal equivalent is one of the key issues for treatment of full thickness skin defects. To yield a bioactive
RNAi functionalized matrix for skin regeneration with inhibited scarring, collagen-chitosan/silicone membrane bilayer dermal equivalent (BDE) was combined with trimetylchitosan (TMC)/siRNA complexes which could induce suppression of selleckchem transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) pathway. The RNAi-BDE functioned as a reservoir for the incorporated TMC/siRNA complexes, enabling a prolonged siRNA release. The seeded fibroblasts in the RNAi-BDE showed good viability, internalized the TMC/siRNA complexes effectively and suppressed TGF-beta 1 expression constantly until 14 d. Application of the RNAi-BDE on the full-thickness skin defects EVP4593 mw of pig backs confirmed the in vivo inhibition of
TGF-beta 1 expression by immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting during 30 d post surgery. The levels of other scar-related factors such as collagen type I,
collagen type III and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were also down-regulated. In combination with GDC-0994 clinical trial the ultra-thin skin graft transplantation for 73 d, the regenerated skin by RNAi-BDE had an extremely similar structure to that of the normal one. Our study reflects the latest paradigm of tissue engineering by incorporating the emerging biomolecule siRNA. The 3-D scaffolding materials for siRNA delivery may have general implications in generation of bioactive matrix as well. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Speech recognition is remarkably robust to the listening background, even when the energy of background sounds strongly overlaps with that of speech. How the brain transforms the corrupted acoustic signal into a reliable neural representation suitable for speech recognition, however, remains elusive. Here, we hypothesize that this transformation is performed at the level of auditory cortex through adaptive neural encoding, and we test the hypothesis by recording, using MEG, the neural responses of human subjects listening to a narrated story. Spectrally matched stationary noise, which has maximal acoustic overlap with the speech, is mixed in at various intensity levels.