Mice engineered to carry a fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans add a double bond into an unsaturated fatty acid hydrocarbon chain and convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids.
This results in an abundance of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid specifically in the brain and a reduction in n-6 fatty acids of these mice that can be used to evaluate the actions of n-3 PUFAs. Gene expression profile, RT-PCR and protein microarray studies in the hippocampus and whole brain of wildtype and fat-1 transgenic mice revealed that genes and proteins concerned with inflammation, apoptosis, neurotransmission, and neuronal growth and synapse formation are specifically modulated in fat-1 mice. These results may explain as to why n-3 PUFAs are of benefit in the prevention and treatment selleck screening library of diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and other diseases associated with neuronal dysfunction, low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions, and bronchial
asthma. Based on these data, it is evident that n-3 PUFAs act to modulate specific genes and formation of their protein products and thus, bring about their various beneficial actions. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neuropeptides released by hypothalamic neurons play a major 8-Bromo-cAMP in vivo role in the regulation of feeding, acting both within the hypothalamus, and at other appetite regulating centres throughout the brain. selleck chemicals Where classical neurotransmitters signal only within synapses, neuropeptides diffuse over greater distances affecting both nearby and distant neurons expressing the relevant receptors, which are often extra-synaptic. As well as triggering a behavioural output, neuropeptides also act as neuromodulators:
altering the response of neurons to both neurotransmitters and circulating signals of nutrient status. The mechanisms of action of hypothalamic neuropeptides with established roles in feeding, including melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the orexins, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), agouti-gene related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y, and oxytocin, are reviewed in this article, with emphasis laid on both their effects on appetite regulating centres throughout the brain, and on examining the evidence for their physiological roles. In addition, evidence for the involvement of several putative appetite regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides is assessed including, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide W and the galanin-like peptides.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Central control of Food Intake’. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The lack of microbial strains capable of fermenting all sugars prevalent in plant cell wall hydrolyzates to ethanol is a major challenge.