“Purpose: A high body mass index increases the risk of nep

“Purpose: A high body mass index increases the risk of nephrolithiasis in adults. Despite the growing problem of pediatric obesity, little is known about the relationship between body mass index and risk of nephrolithiasis in children. We examined the association between body mass index and 24-hour urine chemistry studies in children with a history of nephrolithiasis.

Materials and Methods: A total of 43 children were included in the study. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 24-hour urine chemistry studies. We calculated body mass index for each individual and cases were then stratified by percentile. The 24-hour urine chemistry studies were adjusted for daily creatinine

excretion, urine volume was adjusted for age, and pH and urine supersaturations Blasticidin S concentration were unadjusted.

Results: Body mass index percentile was below the 25th percentile in 8 cases, 25th to 49th percentile in 7, 50th to 74th percentile in 5 and 75th percentile or above in 14. On multivariate analysis the only 24-hour urine parameters

with a significant relationship to body IPI-549 nmr mass index were urine oxalate (negative relationship) and supersaturation of calcium phosphate (positive). As body mass index increased, urine oxalate excretion decreased and supersaturation of calcium phosphate increased.

Conclusions: A high body mass index is associated with decreased urine oxalate and increased supersaturation of calcium phosphate. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity in younger patients, our findings have important clinical implications. Pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists should be aware of these findings when evaluating children with nephrolithiasis.”
“Autism is a behaviorally characterized disorder with impairments in social interactions, as well as stereotyped, repetitive patterns

of behaviors and interests. Exposure Oxaliplatin of rat fetuses to thalidomide (THAL) or valproic acid (VPA) on the ninth day of gestation has been reported as a useful model for human autism. We have shown that early serotonergic neural development is disrupted in these rats. In the current study, we used a radial maze and open field experimental paradigm to investigate whether these rats present behavioral and/or learning aberrations. THAL (500 mg/kg), VPA (800 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered orally to E9 pregnant rats at 7-10 weeks of age. Although the mean number of correct and incorrect arm choices in the initial eight arm choices did not differ between control and teratogen-exposed groups, achievement of learning (seven or eight consecutive correct choices for 3 consecutive days for individual rats) seemed to be impaired in teratogen-exposed groups. Interestingly, average time to explore the maze task was shorter in the teratogen-exposed groups, indicating that correct choice might be due to mere coincidence (i.e., nonexploratory movement). Unexpectedly, no significant differences were observed in social interaction in these rats.

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