Occasionally, probes were presented at locations 15 or 30 degrees lateral of the standard probes. Probes coinciding with the attended message gave rise to a fronto-central negativity relative to the phoneme probes coinciding with the unattended speech message. This was similar to the typical ERP attention effect. On the attended side probes deviating from the standard location by 30 degrees elicited a different type of negative response, tentatively
identified as a reorienting negativity, whereas probes deviating by 15 degrees did not. These results are taken to suggest that spatial information is used for message selection in a cocktail-party situation but that the focus of spatial attention is relatively wide. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“HIV-1 employs the cellular nuclear GDC-0449 clinical trial import machinery to actively transport its preintegration complex (PIC) into the nucleus for integration of the viral DNA. Several viral karyophilic proteins and cellular XAV 939 import factors have been suggested to contribute to HIV-1 PIC nuclear import and replication. However, how HIV interacts with different cellular machineries to ensure efficient nuclear import of its preintegration complex in dividing and nondividing cells is still not fully understood. In this study, we have investigated different importin alpha (Imp
alpha) family members for their impacts on HIV-1 Pyruvate dehydrogenase replication, and we demonstrate that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated Imp alpha 3 knockdown (KD) significantly impaired HIV infection in HeLa cells, CD4(+) C8166 T cells, and primary macrophages. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that Imp alpha 3-KD resulted in significantly reduced levels of viral 2-long-terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles but had no effect on HIV reverse transcription. All of these data indicate an important role for Imp alpha 3 in HIV nuclear import. In an attempt to understand how
Imp alpha 3 participates in HIV nuclear import and replication, we first demonstrated that the HIV-1 karyophilic protein integrase (IN) was able to interact with Imp alpha 3 both in a 293T cell expression system and in HIV-infected CD4(+) C8166 T cells. Deletion analysis suggested that a region (amino acids [aa] 250 to 270) in the C-terminal domain of IN is involved in this viral-cellular protein interaction. Overall, this study demonstrates for the first time that Imp alpha 3 is an HIV integrase-interacting cofactor that is required for efficient HIV-1 nuclear import and replication in both dividing and nondividing cells.”
“The effects of action observation on cortical processes have typically been interpreted in the context of so-called “”mirror systems”" (i.e., brain regions active during both the experience and observation of behaviour, emotion, or sensation), and viewed as subserving social cognition via a self-other matching mechanism.