“The norepinephrine transporter (NET), which is involved i

“The norepinephrine transporter (NET), which is involved in the neurotransmission of norepinephrine (NE), may play an

important role in the development of major depressive Nepicastat solubility dmso disorder (MDD). Recent studies have suggested that a gene-environment interaction may confer susceptibility to depression. The aims of this Study were to test modifying effects of the NET gene on the association between residency and MDD, as well as to reveal the relationship between gender and this gene-environment interaction in MDD. This study recruited a total of 442 patients with MDD and 393 controls. Residence was defined as reported in the data of the 5th Chinese census. Logistic regression models were used to analyze gene-environment interactions. A gene-environment interaction between the G1287A polymorphism and residency was found in the female sample. In addition, selleck compound and odds ratio analysis showed that only rural women carrying the G/G genotype of the G1287A polymorphism were susceptible to MDD, but others were not. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the G1287A polymorphism modifies rural residency as a risk factor for MDD. These findings support the possibility

that the NET gene is an important factor in susceptibility to MDD in a Han Chinese population. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Microcirculatory dysfunction may contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using a prechiasmatic injection model, this study investigated ultrastructural changes in microvessels in brain parenchyma to determine the nature of the microthromboemboli, the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and P-selectin Cepharanthine in their formation, and relationship to brain injury after SAH.

Brains were examined by electron microscopy (EM) and immunohistochemistry. EM demonstrated that mice with SAH had significantly more arterioles filled with lesions consistent with microthrombi (in cortex, 20 +/- 5 for SAH, 8 +/- 4 saline-injected and 2.4 +/- 0.2 for sham). SAH animals also had more constriction of arterioles. The concentration of NO was lower in mice with SAH (44 +/- 9 for sham, 46 +/- 20 for saline-injected and 24 +/- 11 for SAH). The number of microthrombi correlated with the number of apoptotic neuronal cells (R-2 = 0.80 in cortex). Cell membrane P-selectin increased in the endothelium of arterioles in mice with SAH (11.4 +/- 0.7 for SAH, 6.8 +/- 0.9 for sham and 6.1 +/- 0.9 for saline-injected controls). This correlated with decreased NO in the brain. In conclusion, SAH causes microthrombosis and constriction of arterioles, which correlates with neuronal cell death. Increased P-selectin and decreased NO suggest a mechanism for microthrombosis and arteriolar constriction. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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