This profound in vitro phenotype caused us to reexamine the HIVAN

This profound in vitro phenotype caused us to reexamine the HIVAN mouse model and human HIVAN biopsies to see if similar changes occur in vivo. Both showed abundant hypertrophic tubule cells similar to the in vitro finding that represents a previously unappreciated aspect of the human

disease. Additionally, FRAX597 multinucleated tubular cells were identified in the murine HIVAN model and increased chromosome number was detected in tubular cells of human HIVAN biopsies. Our study provides evidence of a new clinical phenotype in HIVAN that may result from the ability of Vpr to impair cytokinesis.”
“Accumulating evidence suggests the endocannabinoid system modulates environmental cues’ ability to induce seeking of drugs, including nicotine and alcohol. However, little attention has been directed toward extending these advances to the growing problem of cannabis use disorders. Therefore, we studied intravenous self-administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive selleck kinase inhibitor constituent of marijuana, using a second-order schedule of drug seeking. Squirrel monkeys’ lever responses produced only a brief cue light until the end of the

session, when the final response delivered THC along with the cue. When a reinstatement procedure was used to model relapse following a period of abstinence, THC-seeking behavior was robustly reinstated by the cue or by pre-session administration of THC, other cannabinoid agonists, or morphine, but not cocaine. The cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant blocked cue-induced drug seeking, THC-induced drug seeking, and the direct reinforcing effects of THC. Thus, rimonabant and related medications might be effective as treatments for cannabinoid dependence.”
“There is a need to

develop early biomarkers of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery, where morbidity and mortality are increased by its presence. Plasma cystatin C (CyC) and plasma and urine Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) have been shown to detect kidney injury earlier than changes in plasma creatinine in critically ill patients. In order to determine the utility of urinary CyC Ureohydrolase levels as a measure of kidney injury, we prospectively collected plasma and urine from 72 adults undergoing elective cardiac surgery for analysis. Acute kidney injury was defined as a 25% or greater increase in plasma creatinine or renal replacement therapy within the first 72 hours following surgery. Plasma CyC and NGAL were not useful predictors of acute kidney injury within the first 6 hours following surgery. In contrast, both urinary CyC and NGAL were elevated in the 34 patients who later developed acute kidney injury, compared to those with no injury. The urinary NGAL at the time of ICU arrival and the urinary CyC level 6 hours after ICU admission were most useful for predicting acute kidney injury.

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