To evaluate the effects of inhibitors, Pg organisms were incubated in plasma in the presence of apple polyphenol (AP), epigallocatechin gallate, KYT-1 (Arg-gingipain inhibitor), and KYT-36 (Lys-gingipain inhibitor).\n\nResults: Plasma supernatants from wild-type and fimbriamutant cultures markedly stimulated cellular proliferation, whereas those containing gingipain-null mutants showed negligible effects. SMC proliferation was also induced by plasma treated with
trypsin. Furthermore, plasma supernatants cultured in the presence of KYT-1/KYT-36 and AP showed significant inhibitory effects on SMC proliferation, whereas cultures with epigallocatechin gallate did not.\n\nConclusion: Our results suggest that Pg gingipains are involved in the induction of SMC transformation and proliferation, whereas this was inhibited by AP. J Periodontol 2011;82:1616-1622.”
“J. Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil Neurochem. learn more (2012) 122, 628640. Abstract Nicotine intake affects CNS responses to stressors. We reported that nicotine self-administration (SA) augmented the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response, in part because of the altered neurotransmission and neuropeptide expression within hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus
(PVN). Limbic-PVN interactions involving medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) greatly impact the HPA stress response. Therefore, we investigated the effects of nicotine SA Panobinostat cost on stress-induced neuronal activation in limbic-PVN network, using c-Fos protein immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing. Nicotine decreased stress-induced c-Fos in prelimbic cortex (PrL), anteroventral BST (avBST), and peri-PVN, but increased c-Fos induction in medial amygdala (MeA), locus
coeruleus, and PVN. Fluoro-gold (FG) was injected into avBST or PVN, as GABAergic neurons in avBST projecting to PVN corticotrophin-releasing factor neurons relay information from both PrL glutamatergic and MeA GABAergic neurons. The stress-induced c-Fos expression in retrograde-labeled FG+ neurons was decreased in PrL by nicotine, but increased in MeA, and also reduced in avBST. Therefore, within limbic-PVN network, nicotine SA exerts selective regional effects on neuronal activation by stress. These findings expand the mechanistic framework by demonstrating altered limbic-BST-PVN interactions underlying the disinhibition of PVN corticotrophin-releasing factor neurons, an essential component of the amplified HPA response to stress by nicotine.”
“BACKGROUND: Chloronitrobenzenes (CINBs) are a family of toxic and bio-resistant organic compounds. Ozone treatment is specifically suitable for partial or complete oxidation of non-biodegradable components. However, few studies on the decomposition of CINBs by ozone are available, and kinetics and mechanisms of CINBs ozonation have not been thoroughly investigated.