Authors’ ContributionsYang Wang and Chengping Lu designed the study. Yang Wang and Li Yi performed most of the experiments, analysed the data, provided figures and tables, and writing the paper. Zhicheng Zhang and Xiangchao http://www.selleckchem.com/products/jq1.html Cheng did some experiments and analysed data. Hongjie Fan and Chengping Lu supervised the study and contributed to writing the paper. Both authors read and approved the final paper. Yang Wang and Li Yi contributed equally to this work.AcknowledgmentsThis work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31201910), the Science and Technology Research Foundation of Henan Province Educational Committee (13A230261), Foundation for University Key Teacher by the Ministry of Education of Henan Province, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Henan provincial science and technology department (122102310335), Major project of Nanjing Science and Technology Committee (201201026), and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
The global epidemic of obesity is irrefutably a major public health issue largely because of its comorbidities, namely, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and cancer. Nevertheless, the prevalence of obesity has drastically escalated by nearly 57% over the previous two decades [1, 2]. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2009-2010) reported that 36% of US adults are currently classified as obese (BMI �� 30kg/m2), while 16% represent incidences of severe cases (BMI �� 35kg/m2) .
Based on projections derived from previous NHANES data, 86% of U.S adults will be overweight (BMI �� 25kg/m2) or obese (obesity accounting for 51.1%) by 2030 if this epidemiological trend remains unresolved [3�C5]. Over the past two decades, adipose tissue has been established as a multifunctional organ playing a critical role not only in lipid/energy storage but also in endocrine and immune functions [6�C8]. The confirmed presence of secretory molecules derived from adipocytes, such as proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-��] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]), constitutes the unique endocrine function of adipose and provides valuable pathophysiological insight regarding obesity and its comorbidities . During unhealthy weight gain, the influx and storage of excess lipids in adipocytes perturbs normal cell function, which Cilengitide consequently induces the overexpression and hyper-secretion of inflammatory peptides into circulation . As a result, obesity is now recognized as a state of low-grade systemic inflammation characterized by high circulating levels of inflammatory molecules, such as TNF-��, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) [10, 11].